DESIGN / DESIGNERS
LEADERSHIP / LEADERS
|Design is a fundamentally human activity - people have been designing tools and environments for millennia.||Leadership is a social phenomenon that has been observed since ancient times.|
|The study of design is an emerging discipline (Margolin, 1989; Buchanan & Margolin, 1995; Cross, 1999; Bayazit, 2004) that integrates the arts and sciences (Cross, 1982; Pugh, 1982).||Leadership Studies is a broad, integrative field that currently draws theories, models, principles and perspectives from the arts, social sciences and humanities.|
|In its broadest sense, design is concerned with nothing less than the transformation of the (natural) world and the reordering of human social relationships (Dilnot, 1982).||Leaders intend and produce change at personal, organizational, social and cultural levels - and the changes they produce may also affect technology and material culture.|
|Designers serve clients.||Leaders serve followers.|
|Design is a practice (Schon, 1983; cf. Cross, 2001 and Doloughan, 2002) -- requiring intentional focus, learning, development, application, reflection, and conscious improvement over time.||Leaders may become intentional about reflecting on, growing, and owning their leadership practice. (Cf. Drucker, 1954 and Zahra, 2003). Self-leadership may be viewed as designing oneself as a designer of change.|
|Designers and their clients begin the design process aiming to bring to realization a design intention (Nelson, 2001).||Leaders and followers intend real changes (Rost, 1991). They pursue change with the purpose of realizing a shared vision.|
|Design has an emergent quality - the final product cannot be fully known at the outset of the design process. When conditions and constraints change, designers re-design.||Leaders and followers begin with a shared purpose and vision that becomes more and more explicit as it becomes operationalized and realized in a dynamic, changing context. (Cf. Heifetz, 1994)|
|Designers co-design with other designers.||Effective leaders collaborate with other leaders and followers; leadership is shared / connective / distributed (Pearce & Conger, 2002; Lipman-Blumen, 1996; Gronn, 2002).|
|Designers communicate with other designers through models, blueprints and other forms of signification. Their success depends on their ability to create and interpret meaning (Kazmierczak, 2003).||Leaders manage meaning (Bennis & Nanus, 1985), frame meaning intentionally (Fairhurst & Sarr, 1996), and lead with meaning (Pava, 2003).|
|Designers use and re-use design patterns (Alexander et al., 1977).||Leaders are guided by leadership principles, models and theories.|
|Design is concerned with the fit and appropriateness of a product within the larger environment in which it will be used (Nelson & Stolterman, 2003).||Leadership is context-specific. The leader is the one who understands the law of the situation (Follett 1940, 1973).|
|There are good designs and bad designs.||Leadership can be used for good or evil.|
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Bayazit, N. (2004). Investigating design: Forty years of design research. Design Issues, 20(1), 16-29.
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Rost, J. (1991). Leadership for the twenty-first century. New York: Praeger.
Schon, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books.
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